The Characteristics of Oriental Mathematics

The Characteristics of Oriental Mathematics
The issue of ‘Oriental Mathematics’ consists of the mathematical theories of many different cultures. These are the Egyptians, Babylonians, Romans, Mayans, and the Hindu cultures. These different cultures all have their own number systems, some with base ten and some with base twenty. At times, their culture afflicted the way their number system was shown on tablets. From wedges to symbols, it was from them that we learned the basics of mathematics.

Babylonian Mathematics

Babylonians lived in the nation of Mesopotamia. Babylonian mathematicians used wet clay tablets as paper to draw their numeral system, which consisted of wedges and isosceles triangles. These were drawn using needles to create symbols on the wet clay tablets. The number system is shown below. It was using the numeral system that the Babylonians created an easier way to multiply. The Babylonians also discovered that the circumference of a circle is 360 degrees. Babylonian mathematics are now referred to as Arabic mathematics.
cuneiformnumbers.jpg

(Picture found from http://z.about.com/d/ancienthistory/1/0/a/k/2/cuneiformnumbers.jpg)


Egyptian Mathematics

The golden ratio a part of Greek mathematics, but was adopted by the Egyptians. The golden ratio was used to find the fraction or proportions of different angles of the body. This ratio is also known as the golden spiral, a circular arrangement found in many places that we rarely realize it is found in. These places include shell rings, tsunami’s, and often in various places in nature. The Egyptians used papyrus reeds as paper to record their math work.

. external image golden_ratio01.jpgspiral.gif

http://www.harunyahya.com/images_articles/golden_ratio01.jpg http://www.stevegagne.com/images/uploads/spiral.gif
The Egyptians used Pythagoras theory of
the golden ratio the measure portions of the
human body. (
These are the fractions shown in the golden ratio or spiral. )




The Egyptian Number System is shown below:

· 1 is shown by a single stroke.
10 is shown by a drawing of a hobble for cattle.
100 is represented by a coil of rope.
1,000 is a drawing of a lotus plant.
10,000 is represented by a finger.
100,000 by a tadpole or frog
1,000,000 is the figure of a god with arms raised above his head
.


Roman Mathematics

The Roman numeral system is one still used by many in different parts of the world. Their number system did not allow them to multiply or divide. This difficulty was overcome by the invention of the abacus. This numeral system did not have symbols to represent fractions, only specific words to show the meanings. The Romans used seven different letters to represent or express the numbers in their systems. See if you can write a number using the Roman numeral system with the help of the Roman numeral chart shown below.



Roman Numeral Table
1
I
14
XIV
27
XXVII
150
CL
2
II
15
XV
28
XXVIII
200
CC
3
III
16
XVI
29
XXIX
300
CCC
4
IV
17
XVII
30
XXX
400
CD
5
V
18
XVIII
31
XXXI
500
D
6
VI
19
XIX
40
XL
600
DC
7
VII
20
XX
50
L
700
DCC
8
VIII
21
XXI
60
LX
800
DCCC
9
IX
22
XXII
70
LXX
900
CM
10
X
23
XXIII
80
LXXX
1000
M
11
XI
24
XXIV
90
XC
1600
MDC
12
XII
25
XXV
100
C
1700
MDCC
13
XIII
26
XXVI
101
CI
1900
MCM
http://www.yourdictionary.com/crossword/romanums.html is where we got the information for this Roman Numeral Chart.



Mayan Mathematics

Some refer to the symbols in this numeral system as shells, pebbles, sticks, or other various counting items. The Mayans used simple symbols to represent large numbers. The Mayans used this base 20 system to add and subtract. The base 20 system at the time was known as a vigesmal system. The shell in this system represented zero, a dot would equal one, and a bar would be equal to five. Mayans did not use math and numbers just to find simple equations, but also to create their calendar and astronomical measures as well.
Numeral_mayan.gif

(This table was from http://mathcentral.urequina.ca/RR/database/RR.09.00/hubbard1/)



Hindu-Arabic Numeral System:
(This system is also refered to as Indian Mathematics.) The Hindu Arabic Numeral System is one with a decimal place value. This system is named after Hindus, and is a base ten numeral system. The Hindu civilization had a different number symbol for each number from zero to nine. They used these symbols when writing numerals. In the 700's, the Arabs learned Hindu mathematics and science. There was a long space in time before this system was used by many around the world. Nevertheless, it became well known because using these numerals, you could easily write out calculations. Check out the numeral system below!
The number system below was from http://www.novaroma.org/via_romana/numbers.html, in case you wanted to know!
2005-08-12-arabic-hindu-numbers.gif